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     This bibliography of articles on impossible figures and objects, while comprehensive, is not complete. We would appreciate hearing about any article of note that is not listed here.

Andrus, Jerry, "Explanation of the Impossible Box and the Plank Illusion," Skeptical Inquirer, Spring, 1994, pp. 316-317


Anno, Mitsmasa, Strange Pictures, Tokyo: Fukuikan Shoten, 1968


Anno, Mitsmasa, The Unique World of Mitsumasa Anno: Selected Illustrations 1969-1977, Tokyo: Kodansha Ltd., 1977


Anon, Problems of Perceptions of Problems of Perception...: New Perspectives with Stemetil, Medical catalogue, England: May and Baker, [no date]


Baldwin, H., "Building Better Blivits," Worm Runners' Digest, 9, 1967, pp. 104-106


Block, J. R. and Harold Yuker, Can You Believe Your Eyes?, New York: Gardner Press, 1989


Brisson, D. W., ed., Hypergraphics - Visualizing Complex Relationships in Art, Science and Technology, Boulder: Westview Press, 1978, pp. 177-185


Cochran, C. F., "Letter to Scientific American," Scientific American, 1966, vol. 214, p. 8


Cole, K. C., Vision: In the Eye of the Beholder, San Francisco: Exploritorium, 1978


Cowan, Thaddeus and R. Pringle, "An Investigation of the Cues Responsible for Figure Impossibility," Journal of Experimental Psychology; Human Perception and Performance, vol. 4, no. 1, 1978, pp. 112-120


Cowen, Thaddeus, "Organizing the Properties of Impossible Figures," Perception, vol. 6., no. 1, 1977, pp. 41-56


Cowan, Thaddeus, "The Theory of Braids and the Analysis of Impossible Figures," Journal of Mathematical Psychology, vol 11, 3, 1974, pp. 190-212


Cowen, Thaddeus, "Supplementary Report: Braids, Side Segments, and Impossible Figures," Journal of Mathematical Psychology, vol. 16, 1977, pp. 254-260


Coxeter, H. S. M. et al. eds., M. C. Escher: Art and Science, Amsterdam, Elsevier, 1986


Cultural Project Department I, The Asahi Shimbun, Toyko, The Expanding Perceptual World - A Museum of Fun I [in Japanese and English], Japan: Toppan Printing Co., 1979


Cultural Project Department I, The Asahi Shimbun, Toyko, The Expanding Perceptual World - A Museum of Fun  II [in Japanese and English], Japan: Toppan Printing Co., 1984


Del-Prete, Sandro, Illusoria, Bern: Benteli, 1987


Del-Prete, Sandro, Illusorismen, Illusorismes, Illusorisms, Bern: Benteli, 1984


De Mey, Jos, Exhibition Catalogue, Belgium, 1994


Draper, Stephen, "The Penrose Triangle and a Family of Related Figures," Perception, vol. 7, 1978, pp. 283-296


Draper, S. W., "The Use of Gradient and Dual Space in Line Drawing Interpretation," Artificial Intelligence, vol. 17, no. 1, 1981, pp. 461-508


Ernst, Bruno, Adventures with Impossible Figures, Norfolk: Tarquin Publications, 1986


Ernst, Bruno, The Eye Bequiled: Optical Illusions, Germany: Benedikt Taschen, 1992


Ernst, Bruno, The Magic Mirror of M. C. Escher, Norfolk: Tarquin Publications, 1985


Ernst, Bruno, Nieuwe Advonturen met On-mogelijke Figuren, Den Haag: Koninklijke-Bibliotheek, 1990


Escher, M. C., Escher on Escher: Exploring the Infinite, New York: Harry Abrams, Inc., 1989


Falk, G., "Interpretation of Imperfect Line-data as a 3-D Scene," Artificial Intelligence, vol 3, no 2, 1972, pp. 101-144


Falletta, Nicholas, The Paradoxicon, New York, John Wiley & Sons, 1983


Farkas, Tamas, The Paintings of Tamas Farkas, exhibition catalogue, Budapest, 1989


Fineman, Mark, The Inquisitive Eye, Oxford: Oxford University, 1981


Frisby, John,  Seeing: Illusion, Brain and Mind,  Oxford: Oxford University Press,  1980


Fukuda, Shigeo, The Trick [in Japanese], catalogue exhibition, Japan, April 1989


Fukuda, Shigeo, Visual Illusion [in Japanese and English], Japan: Rikuyosha Publishing, 1982


Gardner, Martin, "Of Optical Illusions from Figures that are Undecidable to Hot Dogs that Float," Scientific American, November 1968, pp. 48-58


Gibilisco, Stan, Optical Illusions: Puzzles, Paradoxes and Brain Teasers #4, PA: Tab Books, 1990


Gombrich, E.H., The Sense of Order: A Study in the Psychology of Decorative Art, Cornell University Press, New York, 1984


Gregory, Richard and John Harris, et al., The Artful Eye, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995


Richard Gregory and E. H. Gombrich, eds., Illusion in Nature and Art, London: Duckworth, 1973, pp. 49-95


Gregory, Richard, The Intelligent Eye, London, Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1970


Gregory, Richard, "Visual Illusions," Scientific American, November 1968, pp. 48-58


Harris, W. F., "Perceptual Singularities in Impossible Pictures Represent Screw Dislocations," South African Journal of Science, vol. 69, 1973, pp. 10-13


Hayward, R., "Blivits: Research and Development," Worm Runners' Digest, 10, 1968, pp. 89-92


Hofstadter, Douglas, Godel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid, New York: Vintage Books, 1980


Huffman, D. A., "Impossible Objects as Nonsense Sentences," in B. Melzer and D. Michie, eds., Machine Intelligence 6, Edinburgh University Press, 1971, pp. 295-323


Hughes, Patrick and George Brecht, Vicious Circles and Infinity: A Panoply of Paradoxes, London: Jonathan Cape, 1975


Hyzer, W. G., "Plenty of Chances to goAstry in Photographic Interpretation," Photo Methods for Industry, January 1970, pp. 20-24


Istvan, Orosz, OYTIS, exhibition catalogue, Budapest: Balassi Kiado, 1994


Kanade, T., "Recovery of the Three-dimensional Shape of an Object from a Single View," Artifical Intelligence, vol. 17, no. 1, 1981, pp. 409-460


Kanade, T., "A Theory of the Orgami World," Artificial Intelligence, vol. 13, 1980. pp. 279-311


Kulpa, Zenon, "Are Impossible Figures Possible?," Signal Processing, vol. 5, no. 3, 1983, pp. 201-220


Kulpa, Zenon, Challenge to Geometry - Oscar Reutersvard, Zenon Kulpa - Impossible Figures, Lodz: Art Museum of Lodz, exhibition catalogue, 1984


Kulpa, Zenon, Oscar Reutersvard [in Russian and English], Moscow: Contemporary Art Center, Architectural Gallery, exhibition catalogue, 1993


Kulpa, Zenon, "Oscar Reutersvard's Exploration of Impossible Lands," in 150 Omojliga figurer - Oscar Reutersvard, Malmo: Malmo Museum, exhibition catalogue, 1981


Kulpa, Zenon, "Putting Order in the Impossible," in E. Terouanne, ed., Proceedings of the 16th Meeting of the European Mathematical Psychology Group: Montpellier, September 1985, Montpellier, 1985, pp. 127-144


Kulpa, Zenon, Zenon Kulpa: Figury Niemozliwe Lekcja Widzenia Przestrzeni [in Polish], exhibition catalogue, Warsaw, Galeria PSEP, May 1986


Letters to the editor, Mad Magazine, volume 95, June 1965


Locher, J. L., ed., M. C. Escher: His Life and Complete Graphic Work, New York: Harry N. Adams, 1982


Paulsen, Hermann, Unmogliche Figuren, Germany: H. Paulsen, [no date]


Penrose, Lionel and Roger Penrose, "Impossible objects: A Special Type of Visual Illusion," British Journal of Psychology, vol. 49, 1958, pp. 31-33


Petry, Susan and Glenn Meyer, eds., The Perception of Illusory Contours, New York: Springer-Verlag, 1987


Rainey, Patricia Ann, Illusions: A Journey into Perception, Connecticut, Shoe String Press, 1973


Reutersvard, Oscar, Onmogelijke Figuren, Amsterdam: Meulenhoff, 1983


Reutersvard, Oscar, Impossible Figures [In Russian], Moscow: 1990


Reutersvard, Oscar, Onmogelijke Figuren in Kleur, Amsterdam: Meulenhoff, [no date]


Reutersvard, Oscar, Omojliga Figurer i Farg, Bodafors: Bokforlaget Doxa AB, 1982


Robinson, J. O. and J. A. Wilson, "The Impossible Colonnade and other Variations of a Well-known Figure," British Journal of  Psychology, vol. 64, no. 3, 1973, pp. 363-365


Robinson, J. O., The Psychology of Visual Illusions, London: Hutchinson University Library, 1972


Schuster, D.H., "A New Ambiguous Figure: a Three-stick Clevis,"American Journal of Psychology, vol. 77, 1964, p. 673


Shapira, R. and H. Freeman, "A Cyclic-order Property of Bodies with Three-face Vertices," IEEEE Transactions on Computers, vol. C-26, no. 10, 1977, pp. 1035-1039


Shepard, Roger, Mind Sights: Original Visual Illusions, Ambiguities, and other Anomalies, New York: W. H. Freeman and Company, 1990


Singmaster, David, "Don't Believe Your Eyes!," in Focus, December 1994, pp. 18-21


Sugihara, Kokichi, "Classification of Impossible Objects," Perception, vol. 11, 1982, pp. 65-74


Sugihara, Kokichi, "Dictionary-guided Scene Analysis based on Depth Information," in Report on Pattern Information Processing Systems, No. 13, Tokyo: Electrotechnical Laboratory, 1977


Sugihara, Kokichi, "Picture Language for Skeletal polyhedra," Computer Graphics and Image Processing, vol. 8, 1978, pp. 382-405


Sugihara, Kokichi, "Studies on Mathematical Structures of Line Drawings of Polyhedra and their Applicatons to Scene Analysis," Tokyo: Researches of the. Electrotechnical Laboratory, no. 800, 1979


Teuber, Marianne, "Sources of Ambiguity in the Prints of Mauritis C. Escher," Scientific American, July, 1974, pp. 90-104


Terouanne, E., "Impossible Figures and Interpretations of Polyhedral Figures," Journal of Mathematical Psychology, vol. 27, 1983, pp. 370-405


Terouanne, E., "On a Class of 'Impossible' Figures: a New Language for a New analysis," Journal of Mathematical Psychology, vol. 22, no. 1, 1983, pp. 24-47


Thro, E. B., "Distinguishing Two classes of Impossible Objects," Perception, vol. 12, no. 6, 1983, pp. 733-751


Turner, Harry, Triad: Optical Illusions and How to Design Them, New York: Dover Publications, 1978


Whiteley, "Realizability of Polyhedra," in Structural Topology, vol.  1, Montreal: University of Montreal Press, 1979, pp. 46-58


Winston, P. H.,  ed., The Psychology of Computer Vision, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1975, pp. 19-91


Whiteley, "Realizability of Polyhedra," in Structural Topology, vol.  1, Montreal: University of Montreal Press, 1979, pp. 46-58


Young, A. W. and J. B. Deregowski, "Learning to See the Impossible," Perception, vol. 10, 1981, pp. 91-105

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